A common question that arises when on the discussion of PhDs is how do PhD candidates make money? While I can only speak on this topic in an Australian context, I wanted to provide a little overview.
Firstly, PhD students in Australia can be awarded a scholarship which covers stipend (living expenses). Not all students receive scholarships and my understanding is that they are getting more competitive. The RTP (formally APA) scholarship is provided by the Australian Government and is $28,092 per year tax free which is approximately $550 per week. This scholarship lasts for 3 years with an opportunity for a 6 month extension based upon eligibility.
There are other scholarships available for students who do not receive the RTP or there are also top up scholarships which can increase the RTP amount. Again, these can be quite competitive but it is always worth searching for scholarships in your area.
I have written about various ways that PhD students can make money in a previous post, but a common way is to tutor, mark, or work as a research assistant. While the contract amounts for these can vary, often the hourly rate is ~$45 for Research Assistant work and can vary from $45-$120 for tutoring. Marking is based upon how complex the assessment is but is often between $50-$100 per hour.
I hope that clears up a little bit about how PhD students make money!